Here are some of my favorite colors in leaded enamels. As you will see I mostly use transparent enamels.
A few great colors to get you started.
B30 …these two are true yellows
N27…these three are green yellows
L21 very dark
If there is a B in front of the numbers this means it is from Bovano Enamel Supply Others you can order from E-namels.com and the are Ninomiya Transparent Enamels
But there is nothing more important than making your own test places!
Properties of Opalescent Enamels. Okay, get ready for this. Most modern day opalescent enamels are not truly opalescent but rather semi transparent. A true opalescent is a mixture of two immiscible enamels. (Immiscible Definition
Immiscibility is the property where two substances are not capable of combining to form a homogeneous mixture. The components are said to be “immiscible.” In contrast, fluids that do mix together are called “miscible.”
Components of an immiscible mixture will separate from each other. The less dense fluid will rise to the top; the more dense component will sink. This can also be true of solids but in the case of enamels, it is referring to the molten state.)
The old leaded Thompson were true opalescent enamels. In the case of their 835 Opal White, the glass was immiscible unless fired too hot. If you fire them too hot they become miscible and the resulting glass becomes an opaque. According to the late (great) Woody Carpenter, these enamels also contained arsenic. The “too hot” varied from one batch to another. I have a rather large container of 835 that goes opaque at about 1325 degrees and so as long as you fire under that temperature, your results will be a glorious true opalescent enamel. It should be noted that most medium fusing enamels are meant to be fired hotter than this. It is possible to get them to a glossy stage at 1325 but it will take 3 minutes or more for a small jewelry piece. In actuality, it doesn’t matter how many times you fire a piece as long as it never gets hot enough to change the chemical makeup and cause it to go opaque. Because they are so delicately fussy about temperature, you may find that firing on a layer near the end is safer for you but it really is about the temperature.
The Japanese opals are all semi transparent and not sensitive to overheating. The colors are quite lovely and troublefree but not actually opalescent enamels. Have a look at a Faberge Egg in person some time for an example of Opalescent Enamel. They are delicious.
The Lion and the Lamb
“Let us be dissatisfied until that day when the lion and the lamb shall lie down together and none shall be afraid.” -Martin Luther King, Jr .
The theme for American Jewelry Design Council 2018 is “Together”.
Enamels on Different Metals-What A Difference.
What a difference in the brilliance of the color. You can use foils to your advantage to get the enhanced color you are looking for. Gold foil makes colors have more yellow. Copper will warm colors up. Silver will make the true color and sparkle.
You can add foil anywhere is your jewel. If your base plate is copper add a small amount of silver foil to make a little sparkle with your favorite color of enamel.
A question came up today about hard, medium, and low firing enamels.
Hard firing enamels are fired at a higher temperature as in the 1500’s degree range or longer in the kiln.
Medium firing enamels I think of using in 1400’s degree range, or at higher temp as 1500 degrees, but less time.
Low firing enamels maybe fired in the 1300’s or even in the 1400’s with less time.
The purpose of all this is two things expansion of the metal being used and your technique being used.
Start with copper as it is used most commonly in enamels.
Copper oxidizes the fastest of the metals we use in enameling. We balance this by using medium firing enamels so they melt or fuse before the copper has time to oxide. If it oxides the enamel is likely to flake off or just discolor.
Many enameling on copper use the oxidation to get some beautiful colors.
You can fire at a higher temperature so it fuses quickly not allowing the copper to oxidize. Another way to balance this is to use finer grit of enamel. The finer grit will fuse quicker than a larger grit of enamel without allowing oxygen to get to the copper. This allows the enamellist to achieve that beautiful gold or stunning golden orange copper color.
It is best to know the fusing points of all your enamels so you know which ones to apply as a base or flux. Your base coat of enamel or known as flux, should be the hardest enamel you are applying to your base metal so you do not have these problems.
Above the flux was a lower firing enamel than the top coats. So as the top layers melted the flux rose up and the top layer of enamel sank down.
2) Same here,
The flux coat of enamel was not hard enough to prevent the following layers of enamel from touching the sliver. And the brownish color of enamel is just burnt.
In cloisonné we never want our warm colors to touch the silver. It causes burning. Silver is going to hold heat longer than copper so we use a hard firing base. And in some incidences we will use several layers of the hard firing flux before layering in our warm colors to be very sure the red never touches the silver base.
A comment to address
“I’m torch-firing, I always have my work in my sight so I just watch for signs of melting, which happens very fast. I’ve had “pull through” with Titanium White. Titanium White really reacts nicely with copper and you can get some really lovely, but unpredictable, effects. With a little overfiring the enamel turns a beautiful rust color and in spots will be green.”
Yes these effects can be used to your advantage, this is the oxidation of the copper coming through. And in torch firing I realize you are not going by temperature and have the advantage of seeing all that is happening.
Enameling on copper, as in painting enamel in this piece,
It is necessary to use a hard firing flux as it will be fired many times and I do not want the painting to disappear into the base coat of flux. Also in repeated firings the copper can still oxidize through the enamel and show a color change after many firings. As I paint in my image I need the painting enamel to adhere to the base coat of flux by firing the piece, then I can continue layering my painting with enamel colors (soft firing enamel)that fire at a lower temperature or less time. The domed metal add strength or less expansion. So it can handle a harder firing enamel without so much expansion or movement in the enamel. If the base coat was a lower firing temperature it would become soft enough in firing the image would distort as the enamel base or flux would move before the image enamels fuse. Painting enamels are a soft or low firing enamel= as they are ground to a face powder grit.
A color plate is a very good answer to help you know which is which when you are not sure.
The enamel dot fourth from the left is still grainy after all the rest are fused.
This color plate shows the top row, second from the right, as becoming liquid so much faster than all the other enamels it is completely flat.
If you have three enamel on a plate, one hard firing, one medium firing, one low firing and fire the plate once you will see they melt at different speeds.
If you want to use them all in one project just remember the hard is on the bottom then the medium and then the soft or low firing enamel. This is also why you can use unleaded with leaded enamels as long as you put the unleaded on the bottom as it is a high fire enamel.
A couple of things bubbles can be from,
The addition of Klye-fire. And some times the more firings the more they go crazy. I do my best not to use this but I realize in some designs we need it. The last time I used Klyr-fire, a mixture of 1-20 parts distilled water was best. It help on a 3d surface but I could still see a few tiny bubbles.
Bubbles can come from sterling silver that has not been depleted properly. The more you fire the worse they get.
Specks usually come from old or deteriorating enamels. When you wash them you see tiny white specks in the container. On your first few firing you will see some are white in your enamel, then continue firing some look like beige-brown goo, and sometimes they turn into bubbles.